What is movement?
In physics, movement is understood as the change of position that a body experiences in space, taking into account time and a point of reference where the observer of the phenomenon is located. That is to say, that the characteristics of any movement will depend on the reference system, that is, on the point of view from which it is viewed.
According to said reference system, the equations used to calculate the characteristics of a given movement will vary. Some of them take into account the direction of movement (vector equations) while in others it is enough to attend to their particularities, such as speed, acceleration and distance traveled.
The movement has been studied since ancient times, and attracted the attention of the great Greek and Roman philosophers. Since then, this study tends to represent movement by means of graphs, taking into account the particularities of the equations used to describe it.
Currently, the branch of physics that studies movement is the kinematics, but also the dynamics. However, the one in charge of postulating the laws of the functioning of this phenomenon was mechanics, in its three aspects: classical (or Newtonian), relativistic and quantum.
Types of movement
According to the type of trajectory that a mobile describes, the movement can be classified into the following categories:
Rectilineal movement. The one whose trajectory describes a line, and in which speed and acceleration are always parallel. It is usually studied in two specific cases:
Uniform line movement. It presents a constant speed, with zero acceleration.
Rectilinear Motion Uniformly accelerated. The mobile presents a constant acceleration, that is to say, that at any moment of the journey it will always be the same, since the speed always increases or decreases at the same pace.
Circular movement. It has an axis of rotation and a constant radius with respect to it, thus tracing a perfect circumference. If its angular velocity is constant, in addition, we will be in the presence of a uniform circular motion, but in general this type of movement has an acceleration margin.
Wave motion. It is a combination of two movements: one rectilinear uniform horizontal and one rectilinear uniformly accelerated vertical. The result is a ripple path, just like the sound waves through the air.
Parabolic movement. He who draws a parabola, that is, the result of the composition of a uniform horizontal rectilinear movement and a uniformly accelerated vertical movement. This considering that a parabola is a cut in a certain wave.
Pendular movement. The movement that the pendulums draw, be it of simple type, of torsion or of physical pendulum.
Simple harmonic movement. Also called simple harmonic vibratory movement, is that presented by springs and other objects whose movement is periodic and is described in time by a harmonic function (sine or cosine).
Elements of movement
The elements of the movement are their characterizations or describable properties, and they are the following:
Trajectory. The line by which the movement of a punctual body can be described, and which according to its nature can be:’
Rectilinear When it is a straight line with no variations in its trajectory.
Curved. When you draw a curved line, that is, a fragment of a circle.
Circular. When you draw a complete circle in your gait.
Elliptical. When you draw a fragment of an ellipse or a complete ellipse.
Parabolic. When describing a parabola in its displacement.
Distance. The amount of space traveled by the mobile in its movement.
Speed. It is the relationship between the distance traveled and the time when the mobile phone does it. That is to say: the higher the speed, the more distance per unit of time a body travels, and vice versa.
Acceleration. The variation of the speed (comparing the initial velocity and the final velocity) per unit of time experienced by a mobile whose displacement is not uniform. If the acceleration is positive, speed is gained; if it is negative, it is lost.
Examples of movement
In many cases the movement is studied in ideal terms, but in other cases there are many everyday examples to illustrate them, such as:
The movement of the stars. The planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits, that is, by tracing a uniform elliptical motion that can be calculated and examined.
The pendulum of a clock. The clocks of yesteryear worked based on the movement of a pendulum to mark the seconds. This movement is the perfect example of the simple pendular movement, which is the same that we use in movies to “hypnotize” someone.
A bowling ball. Since the floor of the bowling court is waxed to greatly reduce friction, the balls tend to move in motion rect