Phase and group velocity of light

Phase and group velocity of light The monochromatic wave, which describes the equation:, is a spatio-temporal periodic process that captures the entire space and lasts for an infinitely long time. The segment r defines the position of the surface of the same phases O ‘with respect to the initial surface …

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Capacitance and Dielectrics

Capacitance and Dielectrics The container2 is a device consisting of two conductive surfaces separated by two spacers or insulating materials which can store electrical charge (and energy) on it. In Figure 4.1, the capacitor is represented by a number of two parallel conductive plates. When the ladle is “filled”, it …

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Van der Waals forces

Van der Waals forces 1. Dipole – Dipole Interactions When the two polar molecules approach each other, an electrostatic force occurs between their opposite poles. In this way, the attraction force formed between polar molecules called dipole – dipole bond. 2. Ion – Dipole Interactions The interaction between an ion …

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Electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is an energy that is copied by a certain electromagnetic process. Visible light belongs to electromagnetic waves, and electromagnetic waves such as radio waves, infrared rays, ultraviolet rays and X-rays are invisible to our eyes. In classical mechanics, electromagnetic radiation consists of electromagnetic waves composed of an …

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12 Scientific Theory and Laws You Must Know

12 Scientific Theory and Laws You Must Know Science is the pioneer of everything. It allows us to learn about how nature and the universe work. As a result, we encounter scientific laws and theories. First of all, what is this scientific theory and law? Scientific laws can be reduced …

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